周朝的分封制是如何走向终结的,梳理从礼乐崩坏到变法图强的脉络

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周公,吉星,明丹,是周文王继发的弟弟周文王继昌的第四个儿子。他两次协助周武王东征尹尚并制作了仪式音乐。周代成立后,周公成为孤儿部长,助理政府周成旺,并继续贯彻武帝统治时期的国王政策,推动世界。

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宗法制度,完善分离制度,建立长子继承制度和实行矿制,使周代建立了一套社会礼仪制度。然而,随着社会生活的发展和生产力的进步,周朝建立的封建社会开始出现仪式崩溃的迹象,最终走到了尽头。中国古代社会制度从周朝的仪式到秦朝的大同县制度的变化被称为周秦的变迁。那么周代仪式崩溃的原因是什么?中国社会秩序如何逐渐从封建社会(封建社会秩序)转变为权力集中。

周朝以前的王朝是商朝。然而,与周代的子封制不同,商代推行的内外服务体系极为征服。在内部和外部服务系统中,内部服务是商人自己的族群的活动区域,而外国服务是除商家之外的附庸国的活动区域。尚旺正在处理他自己的家庭,并在两个不同的管理系统中放弃外交事务。因此,商网实际上是以联盟领导者的形式与子公司建立了主导和主导关系。在周代建立后,分割制度彻底打破了商代的联盟优势模式。无论姬姓,功绩部长,还是夏商的遗物,他们都被划分为国家,夏族被分层次划分。整体构造。

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The foreign service system of the Shang Dynasty was composed of tribes surrendered to the merchants, and it was forced by the merchants to recognize the central position of the world. However, in the sacrificial beliefs of the merchants, the entire merchants are considered to be destined for destiny, so Shangwang usually adheres to a discriminatory and oppressive attitude towards the dependent countries. For this reason, this kind of surrender of the foreign service country is based on the strength of the merchants' central forces. The Separation System of the Zhou Dynasty reformed this shortcoming of the Shang Dynasty and required all vassal states to obey the orders of Zhou Tianzi. The important official appointments and dismissals in the closed country need to be reported to be approved by Zhou Tianzi. At the same time, the Zhou Dynasty set various obligations that the monarchs of each country must bear for the Zhou royal family. Among them, there are obligations to send troops to follow Zhou Tianzi and to obey Wang Hao, as well as to regularly observe and pay various tributes and taxes. It can be said that compared with the internal and external service system of the Shang Dynasty, the establishment of the Zhou Dynasty's separation order has substantially strengthened the authority of the central Zhou Dynasty.

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Although the system of separation is superior to the internal and external systems of the Shang Dynasty, it has many advantages and advancements. However, with the development of the times, the Zhou Dynasty's system of divisions began to appear turbulent, and the rituals that we usually call collapsed. Since most of the original Zhou dynasty came to the feudal land as a military conqueror, when they brought their kinsmen and pro-independences to become the lords of the land, they became military aristocrats under the Zhou dynasty system. These aristocratic classes differ from the natural existence of civilians on the fiefdom, and the nobles need to find ways to maintain this distinction in order to consolidate their own dominance in order to highlight their superiority and nobleness. Then a sense of ritual law with a strong hierarchical order was formed.

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xx礼仪充满了周朝的各个方面,包括战争。根据《左传》,“国家的伟大事件,悲伤和悲伤”,即只有牺牲和战争才能被视为国家事件,这两件事都只有贵族参与才有资格。平民不能受到污染。由于这个原因,西周诸侯国之间的战争大多是贵族战争,双方的战争都有一套繁琐的“仪式”规范。那时,如果他们没有按照贵族仪式进行战斗,即使他们获胜,他们也会被周围的附庸国所鄙视,这会导致国家地位的下降。在这一时期,贵族之间的战争更加礼仪而不是实际,战争本身就是秩序的一部分。然而,随着贵族之间的霸权变得越来越激烈,情况逐渐发生变化。

虽然存在周代礼仪制度,但贵族之间的战争仍保持在低强度范围内。然而,分裂国家的地理位置差异决定了地理位置在夏季边缘的国家更有可能在夏季系统之外受到文化影响。西部的秦国和南部的楚国属于这样一个地理边缘的国家,因此对周代礼仪制度的认识最低。在西周时期,楚经常多次冒犯周王室,并将其祖先称为楚王。因此,我们现在将看到楚国称自己为王的国家,国家称楚国君主为楚子。

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在春秋时期,当楚成王与宋玉公的战斗中,宋国功,宋国君,仍然沿袭了西周的仪式之战。在楚国军未对齐之前,他不愿意进攻,并最终逃离。与宋玉公的停滞和不足相比,楚人不遵循惯例有先例。早在公元前706年,在早春和秋季,楚国十字军作为周王室的铁杆成员被附属于国家。这个国家的君主说他没有犯楚楚军队的情况,楚武王回答说“我是野蛮人”。随着族长变得越来越凶悍,战场上的贵族风格逐渐成为笑柄。因此,孟子将说“春秋无意义的战争”,也就是说,从春秋时期起,就没有基于礼仪和道德的正义战争。

虽然在春秋时期,各种各样的附庸国逐渐撕毁了面团并发起了一场更加注重实用性的霸权战争。然而,分裂的顺序也限制了这些王子的力量。在长子继承制和分离制的共同作用下,各附庸国的内部结构也是一个小的分裂体系。王子将他们自己的亲戚或英雄分开来管理该国新建的城市和周边地区,从而导致数周。形成多层次的社会结果。随着时间的推移,周天子逐渐无法管理越来越大的王子。在许多封臣中,一些清朝医生逐渐发展和分裂,他们分裂了一些王子的力量。在春秋时期,战争的规模一般不会太大。

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However, in the late Spring and Autumn Period to the beginning of the Warring States period, two important technological advances occurred in the Central Plains society, which triggered a comprehensive change in the entire social structure. The popularization of ironware and cattle farming technology has promoted the advancement of agricultural production technology, and this has led to the development of social economy. The popularity of bamboo slips has raised a round of knowledge transfer technology. It has replaced expensive and difficult to carry tortoise shells and animal bones, making it among the civilians. A lot of people have begun to learn. Advances in agricultural production techniques have prompted civilians to flee from the aristocratic minefields and turn to their own private fields, triggering the collapse of the minefield system. Civilian families with private fields are able to support the off-the-jobs of family members. In this way, civilians began to become a new force in the society at that time. This force merged with the fallen aristocrats and retired military servants, and was called the "scholar" class. For the monarchs of the vassal states, the escape of civilians from the minefield will weaken the power of the lord of the Qing dynasty and form the advantage of the monarchy. Therefore, they have protected the private fields of the civilians. For the nobles of the Qing Dynasty, the privates of the civilians Tian was protected by the monarchy and paid taxes directly to the monarch, making it even more difficult for them to control them. Under this social structure, the monarch and the civilians gradually formed an alliance and began to weaken the power of the aristocratic lords.

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Although the rise of civilian power and the collapse of the minefield system have led to the weakening of the power of the various princes in the domestic princes, the aristocrats who have developed enough in the Jin and Qi countries have completely controlled the domestic affairs of the princes, and eventually happened. The three divisions were divided into two landmark events, Jin and Tian. However, in the four new countries, the reform of Qiwei Wang, the law of non-invasiveness, and the reform of Wei Guo and Li. Since then, the Chu State has also experienced a short-term Wuqi change law, and the Qin Dynasty Shang Dynasty Reform Law has embarked on the process of enriching the country and strengthening the army and unifying the world.

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xx那么,在进入战国时期之后,为什么这些国家改变了思想和改革,谁是实施改革的人呢?事实上,随着雷区系统的崩溃,王子和君主越来越多地占据了医生的优势(除了楚),但是老贵族领主仍然坚强并且限制了君主。然而,随着“学者”阶级的日益壮大,君主们逐渐依赖于这一群在自己国家没有基础和资本的人,而且必须完全依附于君主。他们的地位和荣誉取决于君主的奖赏和惩罚,因此有足够的动力。与君主合作改革政治事务,加强君主制,更好地满足领主的需要。这些人逐渐发展成为君主制的官僚机构,并逐渐形成了完整的官僚体系。官僚和贵族领主之间的本质区别在于没有社会和政治独立,而且必须依靠君主的意志。因此,它们是推动战国改革和改革的支柱。

正是由于周代封建仪式和音乐制度的崩溃,引发了一系列社会变革。最终,在战国时期之后,有些国家正在竞争改变法律。附庸国家争先恐后的原因是因为在春秋战国的血腥岁月中,军事竞争非常激烈。一旦国家改革地图强大,霸权战争的效率将大大提高,其他国家将不可避免地效仿。否则,它将被殴打甚至摧毁。

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在这一点上,随着分离秩序的崩溃,新的君主制集中在社会中。在国家改革的竞争中,秦朝的商鞅改革是最彻底和最持久的,并成为战国时期的最终胜利者。秦始皇风靡六国后,立即执行同文,同车,统一衡量,实行县制。一个新的社会秩序已经形成,并持续了两千年。

总而言之,周礼仪崩溃的实质是贵族秩序的崩溃。该系统动荡和瓦解的根本原因是社会生产力的发展和进步。随着铁器,养牛和竹滑技术的普及,各附庸国内的社会结构发生了根本性的变化,最终促进了各国的改革和社会新秩序的诞生。